by Josip Djelmis, Marina Ivanisevic, Gernot Desoye, Mireille van Poppel, Edina Berberovic, Dragan Soldo, and Slavko Oreskovic. 

Context: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with a disturbance of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Objective: To determine whether T1DM alters maternal and neonatal fatty acid (FA) levels. Design: Observational study. Setting: Academic hospital. Patients: Sixty pregnant women (30 women with T1DM with good glycemic control and 30 healthy women) were included in the study. Maternal blood, umbilical vein, and artery blood samples were collected immediately upon delivery. Following lipid extraction, the FA profiles of the total FA pool of maternal serum and umbilical vein and artery serum were determined by gas chromatography. Results: Total FA concentration in maternal serum did not differ between the study groups; it was significantly higher in umbilical vein serum of the T1DM group compared with that in the control group [median (interquartile range)]: T1DM 2126.2 (1446.4 to 3181.3) and control 1073.8 (657.5 to 2226.0; P , 0.001), and in umbilical artery vein serum: T1DM 1805.7 (1393.1 to 2125.0) and control 990.0 (643.3 to 1668.0; P , 0.001). Composition of FAs in umbilical vein serum showed significantly higher concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated FAs (SFAs, MUFAs, and PUFAs, respectively) in the T1DM group than compared with those in the control group (P = 0.001). Furthermore, cord blood levels of leptin (P , 0.001), C-peptide (P , 0.001), and insulin resistance (P = 0.015) were higher in the T1DM group compared with controls. Conclusion: The neonates born to mothers with T1DM had higher concentrations of total FAs, SFAs and MUFAs, as well as PUFAs, compared with control newborns. 

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