Diabetes in pregnancy (DIP) is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Unfortunately guidelines and clinical practices vary significantly and a number of key issues remain under debate. These include: glucose cut-offs for diagnosis; the approaches of universal versus selective screening; appropriate timing of screening; and acceptability of various screening strategies to the population at risk. Economic considerations are also of importance, but unfortunately data outlining the best approach from this viewpoint are limited. In this paper, we review each of these topics and examine associated barriers and challenges associated with various strategies from a European perspective. We also address options which potentially may have a future role in the care of these women including alternative diagnostic biomarkers.